Variants Threaten to Undo Progress as World Nears 100 Million Cases

Dr. Vivek Murthy, President Biden’s nominee for surgeon general, spoke in Wilmington, Del., last month.
Credit…Hilary Swift for The New York Times

Four Biden officials tried on Sunday to manage public expectations about vaccine distribution, as frustration grows among Americans over long lines, canceled appointments and other daunting issues.

The officials also tried to smooth over confusion about President Biden’s goal of 100 million shots in the first 100 days of his administration. Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease specialist, called the figure “a floor, not a ceiling,” on the CBS program “Face the Nation.”

Dr. Fauci clarified that Mr. Biden was talking about doses, not fully vaccinated people. Within those 100 days, he said, some 67 million people might have received the second of their two required vaccine doses, with another 37 million having gotten just the first dose.

By Inauguration Day last Wednesday, nearly 36 million doses of the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines had been distributed to state and local governments. However, only about 16.5 million shots had been administered by that time.

Along with Dr. Fauci, the four officials included Dr. Vivek Murthy, the president’s nominee for surgeon general; Xavier Becerra, his nominee for secretary of Health and Human Services; and Ron Klain, Mr. Biden’s chief of staff. In appearances on the Sunday talk shows, each deflected questions about whether Mr. Biden’s goal was too ambitious or too modest.

Instead, Mr. Klain said that the vaccine distribution infrastructure inherited from the Trump administration needed to be fortified, and that many bottlenecks had to be cleared. “We need more vaccine, we need more vaccinators, we need more vaccination sites,” he said on the NBC program “Meet the Press.”

Public health officials are eagerly awaiting late-stage trial results for the one-dose vaccine under development by Johnson & Johnson. On the ABC program “This Week,” Dr. Murthy said that while the 100-million-dose goal could be achieved with the vaccines from Moderna and Pfizer that are already authorized, he was hopeful about adding the Johnson & Johnson vaccine as well.

Mr. Klain batted away the possibility that frustrated governors would purchase vaccine for their own states directly, rather than relying on the federal government. “I don’t think that’s possible,” Mr. Klain said, because the emergency authorization for the vaccines means that federal oversight is required.

Dr. Murthy said that the government also wanted to increase research on virus treatments. And he mentioned dispatching mobile vaccine units to remote communities. Until now, vaccines have been given mainly to captive populations like nursing home residents and health care workers, or in urban settings.

Mr. Becerra compared the current pandemic situation, with a severely hampered vaccine rollout and the country hurtling toward 600,000 deaths, to a stricken airplane. He said that the administration would be able to change its trajectory, but that it wouldn’t happen overnight. “You got to give us a chance to figure out what’s going on in the cockpit, causing this plane to nosedive so severely,” he said on the CNN program “State of the Union.”

Pressed for a specific timetable with realistic goals, Mr. Becerra demurred, saying his nomination had yet to be confirmed.

Dr. Fauci and other health officials have been trying to reassure the public that the vaccines that are now available would be effective against new variants of the virus that were first identified in Britain and South Africa. The vaccines could be modified if a particular variant posed a risk, Dr. Fauci said on Sunday, but there was no indication yet that modifications would be needed.

United States › United StatesOn Feb. 2 14-day change
New cases 114,234 –30%
New deaths 3,408 +2%

World › WorldOn Feb. 2 14-day change
New cases 456,211 –21%
New deaths 14,848 Flat

U.S. vaccinations ›

Where states are reporting vaccines given

President Andrés Manuel López Obrador of Mexico said he would continue to carry out his official duties.
Credit…Marco Ugarte/Associated Press

Mexico’s president, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, said Sunday that he had contracted the coronavirus and was undergoing “medical treatment” for what he described as mild symptoms.

Mr. López Obrador, writing on Twitter, said he would continue to carry out his official duties, including holding a call with President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia that is set for Monday.

“As always, I am optimistic,” he said.

The Mexican leader has consistently played down the pandemic, questioning the value of wearing masks and refusing to wear one himself in most public appearances.

On Friday, he posted a photo of himself indoors, again without a mask, conducting a call with President Biden. He was accompanied by Marcelo Ebrard, the foreign minister, and Alfonso Romo, a former top aide — and neither was wearing a mask. And on Saturday, the president met with local business leaders in Monterrey.

Hours before disclosing that he had contracted the virus, Mr. López Obrador, who flies commercial on all official trips, sat in coach on a flight from San Luis Potosí to Mexico City, according to local media reports.

As late as June, Mr. López Obrador was still sounding dismissive. He said that having a clean conscience would help fight off the virus. “No lying, no stealing, no betraying, that helps a lot to not get coronavirus,” he told reporters.

And for months, the president has repeatedly insisted that the end of the pandemic’s devastation was just around the corner.

“The worst is ending,” he said this month, as deaths surged. “We are coming out of it.”

In the spring, The New York Times reported that the Mexican government had failed to record hundreds, possibly thousands, of deaths in Mexico City, dismissing officials who had tallied more than three times as many fatalities in the capital than the government had publicly acknowledged.

Then in December, federal officials, loath to damage the economy still further, reassured the public that Mexico City had not reached the level of contagion that would require a full lockdown. In fact, the government’s own numbers showed that the capital had surpassed that threshold, an analysis by The Times found.

Some public health experts said they were little surprised that Mr. López Obrador had become infected, given his preference for going mask free, even in situations where the risk of exposure was high.

“One even expected or assumed, because of his way of exposing himself to so many people and not wearing a mask, that he would have been infected earlier,” said Carlos Magis Rodríguez, professor of medicine at the National Autonomous University in Mexico. “In all the public appearances of López Obrador, except for when he went to visit Trump, we saw him without a face mask.”

He said there was reason for concern about the prognosis for Mr. López Obrador, who is 67 and had a heart attack in 2013. “He’s at greater risk than a young person,” Dr. Magis said.

Mr. López Obrador has told reporters that he will wait to get vaccinated with the rest of his age group, most likely in mid-March.

The news came as Mexico is confronting its worst moment since the pandemic began, with deaths hitting horrific highs. On Thursday, Mexico confirmed 1,803 new coronavirus deaths, surging past the previous record of more than 1,500 set days earlier.

And while the president is already being treated, many Mexicans are struggling to get medical care. The country’s hospitals are overrun, and close to 90 percent of beds in Mexico City, the epicenter of the national outbreak, are occupied.

Mexico has intentionally kept testing low throughout the pandemic, which has obscured the true extent of the virus’s reach across the country. But it is undeniable that Mr. López Obrador has presided over one of the worst outbreaks in the world.

To date, the country has recorded more than 1.7 million coronavirus infections and nearly 150,000 deaths, the fourth-highest global death toll.

Official numbers severely underestimate the true toll of the pandemic. As of December, the country had recorded 250,000 more deaths than expected, an excess mortality rate that suggests the pandemic has been far deadlier than official numbers suggest.

Kirk Semple and Elda Cantú contributed reporting.

People waited in Berkeley, Calif., last week to be tested for the coronavirus.
Credit…Jim Wilson/The New York Times

The coronavirus pandemic in the United States has raged almost uncontrollably for so long that now, even if millions of people are vaccinated, millions more will still be infected and become ill, unless people continue to wear masks and maintain social distancing measures until midsummer or later, according to a new model by scientists at Columbia University.

The arrival of highly effective vaccines in December lifted hopes that they would eventually slow or stop the spread of the disease through the rest of the population. But vaccines alone are not enough, the model shows. And if precautions like working remotely, limiting travel and wearing masks are relaxed too soon, it could add many more infections and thousands more deaths to the national toll.

There is no doubt that getting vaccinated protects the recipient from severe disease. Still, several infectious-disease researchers contacted by The New York Times cautioned that it would be months before enough people in the United States will have gotten the shots to allow for normal life to begin again.

Only then will the number of people with immunity — those who have had the disease and recovered, plus those who have been vaccinated — be large enough to take the wind out of the pandemic, said Jeffrey Shaman, an epidemiologist at Columbia who shared his team’s modeling calculations.

Dr. Shaman estimates that more than 105 million people have already been infected across the U.S., more than four times the 25 million cases that have been reported. His projections suggest that millions more infections are yet to come, even with vaccination efforts stepping up across the country.

Social distancing, mask-wearing and other measures should continue until late July, “and that may be optimistic,” Dr. Shaman said. Otherwise, yet another resurgence of the virus is possible.

“There are people who are going to want to relax the controls we have in place,” Dr. Shaman said. “If we start thinking, ‘We’ve got a vaccine, there’s a light at the end of the tunnel, we can stop in a couple of months’ — that’s way too soon.”

Paramedics transporting a man showing symptoms of Covid-19 inside an isolation chamber with a negative pressure filtration system from his home in the north of Pretoria, South Africa, this month.
Credit…Phill Magakoe/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

President Biden plans to ban travel by noncitizens into the United States from South Africa because of concern about a coronavirus variant spreading in that country, a White House official said Sunday.

The move comes just days after Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the government’s leading infectious disease specialist, told reporters at the White House that “we’re following very carefully” the variant of the virus in South Africa because it appears to be more highly contagious and might be somewhat less responsive to the vaccines in use today.

Mr. Biden’s travel ban will go into effect next Saturday and apply to non-U.S. citizens who have spent time in South Africa in the last 14 days. The new policy, which was earlier reported by Reuters, is similar to bans on travel from Europe and Brazil imposed by former President Donald J. Trump’s administration. It will not affect U.S. citizens or permanent residents, officials said.

On his last full day in office, Mr. Trump tried to eliminate the Covid-19-related ban on travel from Europe and Brazil, saying it was no longer necessary. Jen Psaki, now the White House press secretary, said at the time that ending the ban was the wrong thing to do and she indicated that Mr. Biden would not allow that to happen.

A White House official said on Sunday that Mr. Biden would extend the travel ban on those areas in the coming days.

On Monday, health officials announced a case of the so-called South African variant had been recorded in New Zealand in a returned traveler who had been released from hotel quarantine after twice testing negative. Over two dozen countries have now reported cases of the variant.

In addition to the travel bans, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has already said that everyone over age 2 will be required to present a negative coronavirus test taken within three days of attempting to travel into the United States.

A White House official said Sunday that the C.D.C. will not issue waivers from that policy as some airlines had requested.

Metzfe Dela Rama, a nurse at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, was vaccinated last month. Gov. Henry McMaster has pressed hospitals in the state to speed up vaccinations.
Credit…Leslie Ryann McKellar for The New York Times

South Carolina now ranks among the U.S. states where the virus is spreading the fastest — and also where vaccinations are slowest. That dangerous combination has officials worried, and pointing fingers.

The governor has criticized some of the state’s hospitals over the vaccination rollout, and the state legislature set up a committee to investigate the health department’s distribution process and why so many shots remain on the shelf.

“We know that South Carolina is not alone in experiencing widespread frustration with the administering of vaccines, but it is apparent that as a state, we are moving at an unacceptable pace,” Representative Weston Newton, the chairman of the committee, said last week.

So far, South Carolina has given at least one dose of vaccine to 4 percent of its population, tying it with Alabama for the fourth-lowest percentage of any state. By contrast, Alaska has given at least one shot to 10 percent of its people, and West Virginia 8.8 percent, according to a New York Times tracker. Two doses spaced several weeks apart are required for full vaccination.

South Carolina’s winter surge in new virus cases peaked in the first week of January, and has since declined slightly, though deaths and hospitalizations have remained at record levels. South Carolina does not have a statewide mask mandate, which Gov. Henry McMaster has said would be unenforceable, and restaurants in the state have been free to fill to capacity since early October.

The governor began visiting hospitals last week to find out what was keeping vaccination efforts from moving faster. In a news conference on Friday, he identified several issues, including difficulty using a federal website to order more doses, and a practice at some hospitals of setting aside vaccine supplies now for second doses that will not be given for two or three weeks.

Many hospitals had gotten off to a bumpy start, Mr. McMaster said, but were now doing an “excellent job.”

Like many other states, South Carolina ran into problems after it opened up eligibility. News that anyone 70 or older could get the vaccine prompted thousands of people to sign up for appointments. To accommodate them, some hospitals quadrupled or quintupled their weekly dose orders, and booked appointments with the expectation that they would receive them, only to find out later that they would get much less than they ordered.

For example, Beaufort Memorial Hospital ordered 2,000 doses one week but received only 450, because the state’s supply from the federal government was so limited. Hospital officials then canceled 6,000 appointments that had been scheduled through March 30.

Scientists at the Jeffrey Cheah Biomedical Centre in Cambridge, England, where researchers are tracking coronavirus variants and trying to determine how well current vaccines can combat them.
Credit…Mary Turner for The New York Times

A year ago, as millions of people in China were starting life under lockdown and the United States was recording its first coronavirus cases, much was unknown about the contagion that was already leaping across borders and oceans.

Experts have since made great strides in understanding the virus and how to protect the world against it, with several vaccines developed and authorized at record speed. But as the world approaches 100 million cases — including 25 million in the United States as of Saturday — a new set of questions has been raised about variants of the virus that could slow or even reverse the progress that has been made toward ending the pandemic.

One of those questions is how effective the current vaccines will be against these altered versions of the virus, which initially appeared in Britain, South Africa, Brazil and the United States. Some appear to be more contagious than the original version, and all are little understood.

The variant first detected in Britain could become the dominant source of infection in the United States by March, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently warned, and would very likely lead to further surges in cases and deaths.

That variant has been found in at least 22 states. On Saturday night, the University of Michigan said that it had suspended all athletic activities after several cases of the variant were found among people linked to the athletic department.

On Friday, Prime Minister Boris Johnson of Britain ignited concern when he said at a news conference that the variant first found in his country might also be associated with a slightly higher chance of death, even as he acknowledged it was too soon to be sure. His own scientific advisers urged restraint in interpreting preliminary evidence.

Dr. Francis S. Collins, director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, said on MSNBC on Saturday that the variant could be increasing deaths in Britain simply because it is more contagious, spreading so rapidly that it is overwhelming the British health system.

Dr. Collins pointed to a study that indicates the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines hold up against the British-affiliated variant, but he said the variant first found in South Africa, called B.1.351, is “more of a concern.”

That variant “seems to have a somewhat more significant effect on the vaccine response, although it still looks like it would be protected,” he said. “Fortunately we have not yet seen that variant in the U.S., but it would not surprise me if it appears.”

Studies published last week show that the variant identified in South Africa is less susceptible to the antibodies created by natural infection and by the vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna. Those vaccines can be altered in a matter of weeks, but experts warn that it would be difficult to update them constantly.

Vaccine trials being conducted in South Africa by Novavax and Johnson & Johnson will provide more real-world data on how the vaccines perform against the new variant there. Those results are expected within the next few weeks.

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Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said Israel would “hermetically” close air travel, stopping most flights in and out of the country for at least a week to try to keep out coronavirus variants.CreditCredit…Jack Guez/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Israel will halt most air travel in and out of the country for at least a week starting from midnight on Monday, in an effort to block the invasion of emerging virus variants that could threaten the success of the country’s vaccination campaign.

“We are hermetically closing the skies, other than for really rare exceptions, to prevent the entry of mutations of the virus, and also to ensure that we can progress quickly with our vaccination campaign,” Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said on Sunday.

Mr. Netanyahu, who is facing another election in late March, is racing to make Israel the first fully vaccinated country.

All foreign airlines will be barred from landing in Israel other than those carrying cargo, and Israel’s own passenger airlines will be temporarily grounded. The only travel to be allowed will be for medical treatment, to attend legal proceedings or family funerals.

The draconian measure follows weeks of soaring infection and deaths in Israel. At least 1,028 Israelis have died of coronavirus so far this month alone, nearly a quarter of the 4,392 Israelis who have died of the virus over all.

Health officials and experts have attributed much of the recent increase in infection to the fast-spreading British variant. It appears to have taken particular hold among the ultra-Orthodox public, which makes up more than 12 percent of Israel’s population of nine million.

Chafing under a third national lockdown, tensions have been rising in ultra-Orthodox areas where some rabbis have insisted on keeping educational institutions open against the rules, and clashes have broken out when police officers have arrived to enforce them.

About 2.5 million Israelis have received a first dose of the Pfizer vaccine, and nearly a million have received a second dose.

Israel has already closed its skies to most foreign nationals, but Israelis who had already purchased airline tickets were allowed to fly during previous travel clampdowns and the restrictions on Israeli passengers quickly unraveled.

A large screen showed a nurse, Ahmed Hamdan Zayed, receiving the Chinese-made Sinopharm vaccine during a news conference at the Abou Khalifa hospital in Ismailia, Egypt, on Sunday.
Credit…Khaled Desouki/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

CAIRO — Egypt began vaccinating health care workers at 40 isolation facilities, pulmonology hospitals and fever wards on Sunday, the authorities announced, in the first wave of the country’s vaccine rollout.

Photos posted to Facebook by the Health Ministry from the first hospital to receive the doses, a medical center in the northeastern city of Ismailia, on the west bank of the Suez Canal, showed doctors and nurses in scrubs receiving shots of the Chinese-made Sinopharm vaccine on Sunday afternoon.

The health minister, Hala Zayed, said at a news conference on Sunday that the government would begin by offering the vaccine to medical staff on a voluntary basis, then proceed to the general public in the next several weeks, starting with people over 65 and those with underlying health conditions. A ministry spokesman, Khaled Megahed, said in television interviews on Saturday evening that the government would distribute 50,000 doses over the next three weeks.

The Egyptian government initially said it would begin vaccinations soon after receiving the first shipment of the Sinopharm vaccine as a gift from the United Arab Emirates in December, but then delayed the campaign without explanation.

Ms. Zayed said more Chinese-, British- and Russian-produced vaccines were to arrive in Egypt soon.

The Egyptian government has received criticism from its health care workers throughout the pandemic over the lack of personal protective equipment and other medical supplies for hospitals, as well as over the low rate of testing. Some doctors have also raised questions about the efficacy and safety of the Sinopharm vaccine, given the lack of detailed data available about clinical trials of the vaccine. With the AstraZeneca vaccine on the way, some doctors have expressed reluctance to take Sinopharm’s, even though it is available sooner.

“Many of us will wait until there’s Pfizer or AstraZeneca or something more credible than Sinopharm,” said one doctor at a hospital in greater Cairo, who asked not to be named because the government has targeted doctors who spoke up about its management of the pandemic. “With those, you know they come from a transparent system. With Sinopharm, there’s a risk.”

Egypt’s official infection rate has been falling, with 680 new cases and 49 deaths reported on Saturday, though international and Egyptian officials have acknowledged that the official rate is an undercount.

Deborah Birx, the Trump administration’s coronavirus response coordinator, at a news conference at the White House in July.
Credit…Doug Mills/The New York Times

Dr. Deborah Birx, the Trump administration’s coronavirus response coordinator, said on Sunday that crucial statements from the White House about the coronavirus pandemic were shaped by misinformation, denial about the severity of Covid-19, and the shadow of an upcoming election.

In an interview on the CBS program “Face the Nation,” Dr. Birx said that from the outset, progress against the virus was impeded by inconsistent and inept public messaging that played down the gravity of the pandemic and the immediate need for safety precautions. In the White House, she said, “there were people who definitely believed that this was a hoax.”

That disbelief in turn was echoed in many pockets across the United States, she said, because at the beginning of the pandemic, public officials did not fully describe the spectrum of disease that the virus could cause. “And so they saw people get Covid and be fine,” and that bred skepticism, she explained.

Incomplete messaging had devastating consequences, Dr. Birx said. While not specifically naming President Trump, who had initially labeled the pandemic a “hoax,” Dr. Birx noted: “Every time a statement was made by a political leader that wasn’t consistent with public health needs, that derailed our response. It is also why I went out on the road, because I wasn’t censored on the road.”

She traveled to several states in the summer and fall, speaking to governors and local officials.

Describing the flow of information to Mr. Trump about the virus as chaotic and uncoordinated, Dr. Birx said that to this day, she did not know the source of some of the data he was receiving. “I saw the president presenting graphs that I never made,” she said.

Last spring, the White House was very focused on the pandemic. But as months passed and the economy continued to sag, she said, the administration routinely ignored her recommendations for “gating criteria” for activities like indoor restaurant dining. As a workaround, she said, she would speak regularly to state governors, repeating her advice.

Vice President Mike Pence was aware she was doing so, she said.

Dr. Birx came under intense criticism from public health experts for being a part of the Trump apparatus that was promoting misleading, and sometime completely erroneous, information and guidance. She was faulted for not countering the president’s misinformation on the severity of the pandemic, or his promotion of certain bogus treatments, and for not adequately addressing the conflicting messages and approaches coming from the White House as the virus raged out of control.

“I was not able to do national press,” she said. “The other thing that was very important to me is, I was not going to go outside of the chain of command.”

She said that whenever she had a significant disagreement with coronavirus policy and practice announced by the White House, a negative report about that dispute would appear in the news media within days.

But, over the course of last year, Dr. Birx repeatedly declined interview requests made by The New York Times as tensions developed between the White House and public health officials.

As the pandemic raged in the summer and the election approached, both Dr. Birx and Dr. Anthony S. Fauci spoke less frequently in public, and were no longer appearing at White House briefings. Mr. Trump’s chief adviser in the fall instead became Dr. Scott Atlas, a Stanford radiologist who supported the benefits of pursuing herd immunity over imposing lockdowns, and who spoke disparagingly about the widespread use of masks.

Dr. Birx said that the only two people in the White House who regularly wore masks were herself and a person on her support staff, and she expressed frustration that the White House believed that the best way to protect the commander in chief from getting sick was to be tested regularly.

Dr. Birx, a career civil servant and an immunologist who worked extensively on international AIDS relief, is now a special adviser to the Center for Global Health at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She said she planned to announce her retirement in four to six weeks.

Maggie Haberman contributed reporting.

Dr. Anthony S. Fauci with President Donald Trump during a White House coronavirus briefing in April.
Credit…Doug Mills/The New York Times

An adviser to seven presidents and the nation’s top infectious disease expert for decades, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci has weathered many crises.

But in 2020, as one of the most familiar, trusted faces of the nation’s public health community, Dr. Fauci, 80, faced a year like no other when the coronavirus pandemic unfolded in the final months of the Trump administration amid an extremely divisive election season.

In an hourlong conversation with The New York Times over the weekend, Dr. Fauci described some of the difficulties, and the toll, of working with President Donald J. Trump.

“He felt disconnected,” said the mother of a 14-year-old freshman in Las Vegas who expressed suicidal thoughts. “He felt left behind.”
Credit…Bridget Bennett for The New York Times

Since schools in Clark County, Nev., shut their doors because of the pandemic last March, an early-warning system that monitors students’ mental health episodes has sent more than 3,100 alerts to district officials, raising alarms about suicidal thoughts, possible self-harm or cries for care.

By December, 18 students had taken their own lives — double the number of the entire previous year. One left a note saying he had nothing to look forward to. The youngest was 9.

While it may not be possible to conclusively link all the suicides in and around Las Vegas to the school closings, they have pushed the Clark County district, the nation’s fifth largest, toward bringing students back as quickly as possible. This month, the school board gave the green light to phase in the return of some elementary school grades and groups of struggling students even as greater Las Vegas continues to post huge numbers of coronavirus cases and deaths.

Superintendents across the nation are weighing the benefit of in-person education against the cost to public health, watching teachers and staff members become sick and, in some cases, die, but also seeing the psychological and academic toll that school closings are having on children nearly a year in. The risk of student suicides has quietly stirred many school officials, leading some, like the state superintendent in Arizona, to cite that fear in public pleas to help mitigate the virus’s spread.

In Clark County, it forced the superintendent’s hand.

“When we started to see the uptick in children taking their lives, we knew it wasn’t just the Covid numbers we need to look at anymore,” said Jesus Jara, the Clark County superintendent. “We have to find a way to put our hands on our kids, to see them, to look at them. They’ve got to start seeing some movement, some hope.”

From left, Senators Mark Warner, Democrat of Virginia; Susan Collins, Republican of Maine; and Joe Manchin III, Democrat of West Virginia, speaking to reporters after a news conference to introduce a Covid relief bill at the Capitol on Dec. 14.
Credit…Anna Moneymaker for The New York Times

A bipartisan group of lawmakers met virtually with administration officials on Sunday to discuss vaccine distribution and elements of President Biden’s $1.9 trillion stimulus plan, pressing for a more targeted approach as the administration works to address the country’s faltering economy.

The discussion with members of the Biden administration, including Brian C. Deese, the director of the National Economic Council; Jeffrey D. Zients, the official Covid-19 response coordinator; and Louisa Terrell, the head of the White House Office of Legislative Affairs, focused on how Mr. Biden and his team settled on the overall figures and whether the administration could provide additional data to corroborate the proposal.

Lawmakers in both parties raised the prospect of curtailing elements of the proposal, including the eligibility for a suggested round of $1,400 checks and ensuring that it was a more targeted distribution of the additional aid, according to multiple people familiar with the discussion.

The $1.9 trillion proposal Mr. Biden announced earlier this month is more than twice the size of the package Congress approved in the final month of the Trump administration, and is designed to build on that package with additional aid for state and local governments, $1,400 stimulus checks, and increased unemployment benefits.

But while members of the Biden team have said they intend to push for Republican support, several Republicans have signaled reluctance to approve another sweeping rescue package after pouring more than $3 trillion into economic recovery in the last year.

And with the second impeachment trial of former President Donald J. Trump set to begin in the coming weeks, Mr. Biden’s proposal could be further stymied. The Senate trial will require considerable time each day.

The Zoom call with more than a dozen lawmakers lasted for more than an hour. Senator Angus King, the Maine independent, noted that it was being held during the championship football games that would determine the two teams in the Super Bowl. He said participants were “acting in good faith” in working toward an agreement.

“There was a genuine desire on the part of the White House to achieve a bipartisan proposal,” Mr. King said. On the call, he added, “you wouldn’t have been able to tell who was which party.”

The group included several lawmakers who helped jump-start stalled negotiations over the latest $900 billion package approved in late December, including Susan Collins, Republican of Maine; Joe Manchin III, Democrat of West Virginia; Mark Warner, Democrat of Virginia; and Mitt Romney, Republican of Utah. Representatives Josh Gottheimer, Democrat of New Jersey, and Tom Reed, Republican of New York, also joined as the leaders of the bipartisan House Problem Solvers Caucus.

Providing more funds for vaccine distribution was among the issues that had the most bipartisan support.

“It’s clear that virtually every state is having difficulties with getting the vaccine out and that additional funding is needed,” Ms. Collins said in an interview. She said she had personally raised the issue of supporting rural hospitals, which have incurred additional costs for administering the vaccine in Maine.

It is unclear, people familiar with the discussion said, when the administration would provide the data lawmakers requested to justify the proposed funding levels, how the proposal would advance through both chambers, and whether there would be another conversation with the group in the coming days. Mr. King also said it was unclear whether some of the funds would be repurposed from previous pandemic packages.

“They were pretty noncommittal in general, I would say, but to be fair to them, this was their opportunity to hear from us,” Ms. Collins said. “I appreciate that they were willing to outline their plan in more detail — if there is going to be a bipartisan Covid package, it’s really important that they hear the concerns” of lawmakers.

There was also discussion about the administration’s proposal for funding schools, state and local governments and child care.

Karine Jean-Pierre, the principal deputy White House press secretary, said on Sunday that “we’re going to continue making that bipartisan push and that bipartisan effort” and that the meeting would be one of many efforts to corral support for Mr. Biden’s proposal.

But in an acknowledgment of Republican resistance to spending billions of taxpayer dollars, Democrats have signaled a willingness to turn to the reconciliation process — a budgetary mechanism that would allow Democrats to pass the legislation with a simple majority and bypass the usual 60-vote threshold needed to advance legislation.

“What we cannot do is wait weeks and weeks and months and months to go forward — we have got to act now,” said Senator Bernie Sanders, the Vermont independent who will head the Senate Budget Committee, on the CNN program “State of the Union.”

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The police used tear gas, horses and water cannons to disperse anti-government demonstrators in Amsterdam and Eindhoven in the Netherlands on Sunday, who had gathered to protest a national coronavirus lockdown.CreditCredit…Robin Van Lonkhuijsen/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Demonstrators clashed with the Dutch police in two cities on Sunday, and a coronavirus testing facility was burned on Saturday, as anger at a nationwide lockdown in the Netherlands grew more violent.

A two-week curfew that went into effect at 9 p.m. on Saturday was repeatedly broken. In the fishing village of Urk, where unrest occurred in November and December, young people set the testing facility on fire right after the curfew began.

Officials said that 3,600 people were fined nationwide for violating the stay-at-home order, and 25 people were arrested and accused of breaching the curfew or violence.

On Sunday, hundreds of people gathered in unauthorized demonstrations organized through social media in the capital city of Amsterdam and the southern city of Eindhoven, where violence was sharpest. Bicycles and cars were set on fire, and shop windows broken, the public broadcaster NOS reported, and dozens of people were arrested. The police used water cannons, officers on horses and tear gas to disperse the protesters.

Those protesting the pandemic restrictions are a relatively small but vocal coterie of groups and individuals, and they have taken aim at Prime Minister Mark Rutte and his policies as well as at established media organizations. Much like the Trump loyalists who stormed the U.S. Capitol, they believe the system needs to be uprooted.

The strict measures taken to stop the spread of the coronavirus come as Mr. Rutte is facing a storm of criticism over a child benefit scandal in which thousands of innocent families were given high fines by overzealous tax inspectors for fraud they didn’t commit. His party, however, continues to lead in the polls ahead of a general election scheduled for March.

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Charles Michel, president of the European Council, said the European Union would use “all legal means” to enforce the agreements pharmaceutical companies made to supply Covid-19 vaccines.CreditCredit…Andrea Mantovani for The New York Times

The European Union said on Sunday that it would take legal action if necessary to ensure pharmaceutical companies fulfilled contracts to supply Covid-19 vaccines to the bloc, after announcements of delays in vaccine deliveries.

“We intend to enforce the contracts that were signed by the pharmaceutical companies” and will be “using all the legal means that are at our disposal,” said Charles Michel, president of the European Council. He was speaking on “Le Grand Rendez-Vous,” a program that is a collaboration of Europe 1 radio, the CNEWS channel and Les Echos news site.

On Jan. 15, Pfizer, which developed its vaccine with Germany’s BioNTech, said it would deliver fewer doses than expected to the 27 E.U. countries in late January and early February because it was taking its manufacturing plant in Puurs, Belgium, offline for upgrades to increase its production capacity.

In another blow to European vaccination efforts, AstraZeneca, which has developed a vaccine with the University of Oxford, is also delivering fewer doses than expected. The company said on Friday that it still intended to get “tens of millions of doses” to the bloc’s 27 member states in February and March, but that the deliveries would “be lower than originally anticipated due to reduced yields at a manufacturing site within our European supply chain.” AstraZeneca noted that it would eventually ramp up production but did not provide a timeline.

Requests for comment from Pfizer and AstraZeneca were not immediately returned.

Mr. Michel said that he understood there were obstacles in setting up production lines, but he said that he would “fight hard to get clarity” on the reasoning behind the Pfizer delays.

“We reacted firmly, we banged our fists on the table, and in the end, announced delays of several weeks turned into a slowdown, not a delay, of deliveries,” he said.

Officials in countries including Canada and Italy have also grown frustrated over the announced delay. In Italy, officials told the local news media on Sunday that they would take legal action to ensure doses of the vaccine were secured, adding that reduced supplies would set the country’s vaccination program back by weeks.

Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte called the delays “unacceptable” in a Facebook post on Saturday, adding that they were “serious contractual violations” that would cause “enormous damage” to Italy and other European countries.

Pallbearers in Harare, Zimbabwe, on Thursday carrying the coffin of Ellen Gwaradzimba, the minister of provincial affairs for Manicaland Province, who died of Covid-19.
Credit…Tsvangirayi Mukwazhi/Associated Press

HARARE, Zimbabwe — With coronavirus deaths mounting in Zimbabwe, and after a number of current and former government officials died within days of each other, the country’s president described the pandemic this weekend as “indiscriminate.”

But critics say the country suffers from a lack of preparedness, and that the poor will pay the highest price.

Last Wednesday, Zimbabwe’s foreign minister, Sibusiso Busi Moyo the man made famous for announcing the country’s 2017 coup against the longtime president, Robert M. Mugabe — died from the virus. Two days later, the country’s transportation minister, Joel Matiza, also died from complications from Covid-19. On the same day, Zimbabwe’s former education minister, Aeneas Chigwedere, died of similar causes.

On Jan. 15, Ellen Gwaradzimba, a minister of provincial affairs in Manicaland, in the country’s east, also died of Covid-19 complications.

And the minister of justice, Ziyambi Ziyambi, is fighting the virus in intensive care, according to The ZimMorning Post.

“The pandemic has been indiscriminate,” President Emmerson D. Mnangagwa said in a televised address on Saturday.

“There are no spectators, adjudicators, no holier than thou, no supermen or superwomen, we are all exposed,” he added. “We are all potential victims.”

Mr. Mnangagwa also promised that “help is on the way,” adding that his government “will roll out vaccination across the length and breadth of our nation.”

Opposition politicians and citizens, however, reacted with cynicism.

“This pandemic needs not only press statements and promises, but needs leadership and action to deal with all the hurdles, including corruption, which has suffocated and undermined our health institutions since time immemorial,” said Obey Sithole, a youth leader in the opposition Movement for Democratic Change Alliance.

Zimbabwe has officially recorded over 31,000 coronavirus cases since the start of the pandemic and 974 deaths, including 614 so far this month alone. Some health experts fear the death toll could be much higher as people die at home or in areas where data collection is slow.

Opposition politicians pointed to the finance minister’s recent budget speech, which did not include separate funding to address the pandemic. In Zimbabwe’s hospitals, health care workers’ unions have complained about the shortage of personal protective equipment.

The country’s dilapidated health system has left many fearful of visiting hospitals and clinics, even as they fall ill. Instead, some have turned to other remedies.

“My husband, who is a cross-border truck driver often crossing to and from South Africa, tested positive for coronavirus,” said Martia Mutizi, 52, a Harare resident. “We could not risk taking him for admission at the hospital because many coronavirus patients there are dying with no help, and so my husband is recovering through steaming and using herbs.”

Jeffrey Moyo and

On a street in Wuhan, China, the city that had the world’s first major coronavirus outbreak, a video about the city’s mobilization against the virus was played this month.
Credit…Gilles Sabrie for The New York Times

One year ago this week, the Chinese Communist Party was on the verge of its biggest crisis in decades. The coronavirus had brought the city of Wuhan to a halt. In the following days, the government’s efforts to conceal the pandemic would become public, setting off an online backlash of the kind the Chinese internet hadn’t seen in years.

Then, as the blows landed faster than the Chinese propaganda machine seemingly could handle, a number of liberal-minded Chinese began to think the unthinkable. Perhaps this tragedy would impel the Chinese people to push back. After decades of thought control and worsening censorship, perhaps this was the moment that the world’s largest and most powerful propaganda machine would crack.

It wasn’t.

A year later, the party’s control of the narrative has become absolute. In Beijing’s telling, Wuhan stands not as a testament to China’s weaknesses but to its strengths. Memories of the horrors of last year seem to be fading, at least judging by what’s online. Even moderate dissent gets shouted down.

People in China should be bowing their heads this week in memory of those who suffered and died. Instead, the China internet is afire over the scandal of a Chinese actress and her surrogate babies, a tabloid controversy egged on by Chinese propaganda.

Anyone looking for lessons about China in the coming years needs to understand the consequences of what happened in 2020. The tragedy showed Beijing has the ability to control what people in China see, hear and think to a degree that surpasses even what pessimists believed. During the next crisis — whether it be disaster, war or financial crisis — the party has shown it has the tools to rally the people, no matter how ham-handedly Beijing deals with it.

A health care worker getting a Covid-19 vaccine in Providence, R.I.
Credit…Cody O’Loughlin for The New York Times

With Americans desperately searching for ways to get a Covid-19 vaccine and doses in short supply, one lawmaker wants to deter people from cutting in line ahead of health care workers and older people.

Charlene Lima, a state representative in Rhode Island, introduced legislation last week that would make it a felony to vaccinate someone who is not yet eligible. An individual who knowingly received such a shot in the state could be convicted of a misdemeanor under the proposed legislation, which is co-sponsored by four Democrats.

“I think that the distribution of the Covid vaccine is literally a matter of life and death, and because of this we can’t tolerate even a hint of favoritism in its distribution,” Ms. Lima said in an interview. “Vaccine cutting is more of a problem than we imagine, so I feel that my legislation would be a strong deterrent.”

The proposal comes after reports from around the country of ineligible people getting the vaccine through a mix of luck and persistence amid a chaotic distribution plan.

In Los Angeles County, some clinics have been giving vaccines that would otherwise expire to people who stake out sites in hopes of getting a leftover dose, according to The Los Angeles Times. Officials running vaccine operations at one community health center in South Los Angeles told the newspaper that the staff refuses to throw out precious doses.

Some pharmacies in Texas are taking a similar approach. Mike Schotte, 53, and his mother, who is 72, stopped by several pharmacies near their home in Hurst to figure out which ones were distributing leftover vaccines. Though her age made her eligible for the vaccine, available appointments were scarce.

On Jan. 10, his mother got a call that there was one available dose if she could arrive within 30 minutes. “I had to go grab her, and we had to get in the car and hit it,” Mr. Schotte said. “I’m thankful.”

There was even just enough in the vial for his first dose, too.

But Mr. Schotte is not sure exactly where he and his mother will get their second vaccine doses. “We’re trying to chase the second dose,” he said. “There’s no guarantee that they’re going to get any more allotment.”

Health care workers taking a picture showing their vaccination cards after being inoculated in São Paulo, Brazil, on Wednesday.
Credit…Victor Moriyama for The New York Times

The coronavirus vaccine wasn’t supposed to be a golden ticket. A tiered and efficient rollout was meant to inoculate frontline workers and the most vulnerable before the rest of society.

But scattershot and delayed distribution threatens to create a new temporary social class — one that includes not just people who are at higher risk for infection or severe illness and death, but also grocery store customers in Washington; Indonesian influencers; elementary schoolteachers; American celebrities; New York Post reporters and others who, because of their work or luck, have been immunized.

The Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, the only two approved so far in the United States, have been shown to be extremely effective. But people can still get the coronavirus while in the process of being inoculated, and may still be able to spread the virus afterward if they come in close contact with others or stop wearing masks.

As a result, plenty of people who have been vaccinated will wait until they are told it’s safe to gather. But others are almost certain to feel emboldened to begin congregating with their vaccinated peers. Vaccination could begin to represent not only safety from the virus but also, for some, a leg up in the job market as businesses seek to employ people who are vaccinated.

“A lot of people are going to start wanting to say, ‘Hey, send vaccinated professionals as well,’” said Jamie Baxter, the chief executive of Qwick, an Arizona-based platform that connects service workers with employers.

Eric Shoup, chief executive of Peerspace, a commercial space rental platform, said he was watching to see whether cities and states make allowances for those who have been inoculated, especially once they make up a significant portion of the population.

“There are going to be the haves and have-nots, if you will,” he said.

Health care workers are one group finding that vaccination comes with some small perks. On Friday, the N.F.L. announced that a significant percentage of the crowd at Super Bowl LV in Tampa, Fla., would be vaccinated health care workers, who will receive free tickets.

And on dating apps, vaccination has become a hot topic. On Tinder, vaccine mentions in user bios rose 258 percent from September to December, and on OkCupid, those who indicated they had received a vaccine were liked at double the rate of those who said they weren’t interested in getting it.

“Basically, getting the vaccine is the hottest thing you could be doing on a dating app right now,” said Michael Kaye, a spokesman for OkCupid.

The technique of stretching vaccines to increase the number of inoculations is complicated by the unique characteristics of mRNA vaccines.
Credit…Octavio Jones for The New York Times

In desperate times, there are many ways to stretch vaccines and speed up inoculation campaigns, according to experts who have done it.

Splitting doses, delaying second shots, injecting into the skin rather than the muscle and employing roving vaccination teams have all saved lives — that is, when the circumstances are right.

And during cholera outbreaks in war zones, Doctors Without Borders has used “takeaway” vaccination, in which the recipient is given the first dose on the spot and handed the second to self-administer later.

Unfortunately, experts said, it would be difficult to try most of those techniques right now, even though urgency is growing to speed up the lagging U.S. rollout of coronavirus vaccines.

Those novel strategies have worked with vaccines against yellow fever, polio, measles, cholera and Ebola; most of those vaccines were invented decades ago, or are easier to administer because they are oral or can be stored in a standard refrigerator.

The new mRNA-based coronavirus vaccines approved thus far are too fragile, experts said, and too little is known about how much immunity they confer.

The Biden administration should focus on speeding up the production of more robust vaccines “rather than playing card tricks” with current ones, said Dr. Peter J. Hotez, dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston and the inventor of a coronavirus vaccine.

There are two strategies that might work with the current vaccines, but each is controversial.

The first is being tried in Britain. In December, faced with shortages and an explosive outbreak, the country’s chief medical officers said they would roll out all of the vaccines they had, giving modest protection to as many Britons as possible. Second doses, they said, would be delayed by up to 12 weeks and might be of a different vaccine.

There is some evidence supporting the idea: Early data from the first 600,000 injections in Israel suggests that even one dose of the Pfizer vaccine cut the risk of infection by about 50 percent.

Nonetheless, some British virologists were outraged, saying single doses could lead to vaccine-resistant strains. The Food and Drug Administration and many American vaccinologists also oppose the idea.

Moncef Slaoui, the chief scientific adviser to Operation Warp Speed, raised a different objection to the British plan. Single doses, he warned, might inadequately “prime” the immune system; if those vaccine recipients were later infected, some might be worse off than if they had not been vaccinated at all.

As an alternative — the second strategy for stretching the vaccines — Dr. Slaoui proposed using half-doses of the Moderna vaccine.

There is strong evidence supporting that idea, he said.

Mink in six countries have grown sick and died from the coronavirus, which they have also passed back to people in mutated form.
Credit…Maciek Nabrdalik for The New York Times

In a half-dozen countries across the world, mink have become infected with coronavirus, died in large numbers and also passed the virus back to people in a mutated form. In response, at least two American companies, as well as Russian researchers, are working on coronavirus vaccines for mink.

Zoetis, a large veterinary pharmaceutical company in New Jersey with more than $6 billion in annual revenue in 2019, and Medgene Labs, a small company with about 35 employees that is based in South Dakota, are both testing vaccines in mink. They are seeking licensing of their products from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Both companies said their vaccine technologies are generally similar to the one used by Novavax for a human vaccine, which is in late-stage trials. That system involves making insect cells produce the spike protein on the coronavirus, which is then attached to a harmless virus that enters the body’s cells and trains the immune system to be ready for the real thing.

All members of the weasel family are susceptible to infection and to developing some symptoms and passing on the virus, at least to others of their species. That is partly because of the proteins on the surfaces of their cells and because of the structure of their respiratory systems. Scientists don’t know why mink in particular seem to get very sick, but the crowded, caged conditions on farms may result in exposure to higher amounts of virus.

The most serious outbreak was in Denmark, which has shut down mink farming until at least 2022 because of mutations to the virus that occurred in infected mink.

Late last fall, Denmark ordered the slaughter of up to 17 million of the animals. Most of the dead mink were not allowed to be skinned for the fur trade. In average years, the country sells up to 17 million pelts, but last year’s decision killed its breeding stock as well, and there are fears that the industry will not recover.

In the United States, by contrast, about 275 mostly small mink farms produce about three million pelts annually, according to an industry group, Fur Commission U.S.A. Thousands of U.S. mink have been infected and died, but states have dealt with the problem, quarantining some farms. There have been no orders to kill mink populations, as in Denmark.

Zoetis produces many livestock, dog and cat vaccines. For pets, it makes vaccines for canine infectious respiratory disease, feline leukemia virus and others. The company began its work on an animal vaccine in February at the start of the pandemic.

A Missouri state senator who had said it was “my choice if I want to risk getting Covid” recently tested positive for the virus.
Credit…Whitney Curtis for The New York Times

A pop-up testing site may be coming to the basement of the Missouri Capitol after several lawmakers fell ill with the coronavirus this month, temporarily halting one chamber’s meetings and angering some lawmakers who said their colleagues were putting them at risk by not wearing masks.

On Friday, a Republican state senator who had said it was “my choice if I want to risk getting Covid” tested positive for the virus, according to The Missouri Independent. The state senator, Andrew Koenig, who represents parts of St. Louis County, said on Twitter that he was experiencing mild symptoms and would isolate at home. The Independent noted that he had participated in two in-person hearings in the past week before the positive test.

The virus has seriously hindered the work of many state legislatures, and at least seven state lawmakers are believed to have died from Covid-19. It has also led to statehouse debates over whether masks should be required in the buildings — or whether the politicians should meet in person at all. In New Hampshire, where the speaker of the House died of the coronavirus in December, lawmakers convened in a parking lot to conduct state business this month. Other states have held their sessions virtually.

The proposed clinic in the Missouri Statehouse would have a nurse who would provide rapid tests to lawmakers, their aides and other people who work in the building, the House’s chief clerk said, according to The Associated Press. It reported that at least 14 lawmakers had tested positive for the virus before Mr. Koenig, and said that when the House session began this month, most Democrats donned masks and most Republicans went without them.

The House halted its session this month after several lawmakers fell ill. But Caleb Rowden, the Republican leader of the State Senate, tweeted that the legislative body was planning to convene on Monday, and he urged other lawmakers to wear masks and keep their distance from one another.

“We knew this session would present unprecedented challenges,” Mr. Rowden wrote, “but we also know that challenges can lead to opportunities.”

The Kansas City Star’s editorial board has criticized members of both parties for not wearing masks while at the Capitol, and last week the newspaper wrote that the Republican leadership was failing to require basic precautions that could help avoid further delays in state business, such as by mandating masks.

“Shouldn’t common sense prevail?” the paper’s editorial board wrote. “How difficult could it be to institute a mask policy or work remotely?”

The Tuileries Garden in Paris last week before the 6 p.m. curfew.
Credit…Dmitry Kostyukov for The New York Times

With coronavirus infections rising and a contagious new variant threatening to accelerate the pandemic, France has issued a stringent curfew, from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. Citizens nationwide are sequestered indoors, and businesses must close down.

In Quebec, Canadian officials imposed a similar restriction this month, running from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m. It has frayed nerves: Notably, a woman who was walking her boyfriend on a leash at 9 p.m. has argued that the activity is one of the exemptions from the curfew, surely one of the pandemic’s most unexpected moments.

The question for scientists is this: Do curfews work to slow transmission of the virus? If so, under what circumstances? And by how much?

The scientific evidence on curfews is far from ideal. There has not been a pandemic like this one in a century. Although curfews make intuitive sense, it’s very hard to discern their precise effects on viral transmission, let alone transmission of this coronavirus.

Ira Longini, a biostatistician at the University of Florida, believes curfews are, on the whole, an effective way to slow the pandemic. But he acknowledged his view is based on intuition.

“Scientific intuition does tell you something,” Dr. Longini said. “It’s just that you can’t quantify it very well.”

One study, published recently in Science, analyzed data from Hunan Province, in China, at the start of the outbreak. Curfews and lockdown measures, the researchers concluded, had a paradoxical effect: These restrictions reduced the spread within the community, but they raised the risk of infection within households, Kaiyuan Sun, a postdoctoral fellow at the National Institutes of Health, reported along with his colleagues.

A practice session for tennis players at the Australian Open, which is to begin Feb. 8.
Credit…Sandra Sanders/Reuters

Three men linked to the Australian Open who are quarantining in Melbourne hotels ahead of the Grand Slam tennis tournament have tested positive for a highly infectious coronavirus variant since arriving in the country, according to the government body overseeing virus-related quarantines in the state of Victoria, which encompasses Melbourne.

The governing body, COVID-19 Quarantine Victoria, said in an email statement on Saturday night that the three men were not players and that they had arrived in Melbourne on Jan. 15 “on a dedicated Australian Open charter flight.”

Like everyone else who arrived in Melbourne for the Open, they were expected to have tested negative for the virus within a few days of traveling to Australia, then be screened again soon after arrival. The three men with the variant first found in Britain tested positive on Jan. 15, 17 and 18, the statement said.

“All three cases have been in hard lockdown since they landed in Melbourne,” the statement said.

Because the coronavirus has been largely contained in Australia and all but eliminated in Victoria — which as of Saturday had recorded 17 consecutive days with no new local infections — health officials allowed the Open to proceed only if stringent rules were applied to tennis players and their support staff arriving from overseas.

Everyone involved in the tournament who traveled to Australia on one of the 17 charter flights — players, coaches, support staff members, journalists — was expected to quarantine for 14 days.

But players and coaches who tested negative after arrival — and were not on flights with people who tested positive — are allowed to leave their hotels a few hours a day to train in a gym and to practice on courts for the Open, which is to begin Feb. 8.

A total of 970 people are quarantining in hotels for the tournament, according to Victoria’s Covid quarantine agency. Of those, as many as 72 tennis players are completely confined to their hotel rooms for their first 14 days in Australia because passengers on their chartered flights tested positive after arriving in Melbourne.

Australian Open organizers on Sunday released a revised schedule of lead-in events, including an additional women’s warm-up tournament for players who had not been allowed out of quarantine to train.

As of Saturday, a total of 10 people connected to the tournament had tested positive, including the three with the variant, the Victoria agency said. In addition, a flight attendant aboard a chartered flight from Los Angeles tested positive. Only one player is known to have tested positive — Paula Badosa, 23, of Spain.

The first two cases of the so-called British variant in Australia were reported on Dec. 21. They involved Australians returning from Britain who ended up quarantining in hotels in the state of New South Wales. In Victoria, five cases of the variant were reported between late December and early January.

A coronavirus testing site in Somerton, Ariz., this month. Doctors are trying to understand why some people who contracted the virus continue to experience symptoms long after they have gotten better.
Credit…Adriana Zehbrauskas for The New York Times

When Mount Sinai Hospital opened its Center for Post-Covid Care in May, it was the first such facility in the United States. The doctors there expected to treat patients who had been severely ill or hospitalized. By that point, three months into the pandemic, they knew that the coronavirus could cause harm to many parts of the body beyond the airways where infections most commonly begin. And they knew that medical treatments meant to save patients’ lives could also take a toll. Recovery from having been put on a ventilator, in particular, could be a lengthy process.

Mount Sinai sought to support patients recovering from severe Covid-19 by giving them access to a multidisciplinary medical team that included lung, heart and kidney doctors, rehabilitation specialists and psychiatrists for those whose mental health might have been affected by their ordeals.

Hundreds of patients, most of them women, showed up soon after the center’s doors opened. To the doctors’ surprise, however, many of them had experienced only mild cases of Covid-19. They hadn’t been hospitalized. They were relatively young and otherwise in good health, without the underlying conditions like obesity and diabetes that are known to make Covid-19 worse.

And yet, months after their bodies had seemingly fought off the coronavirus, they still felt quite ill. “We’ve heard of illnesses, viral illnesses, that have a prolonged postviral phase,” said Dr. Zijian Chen, the head of Mount Sinai’s recovery center. “But these usually don’t last for the months and months that we see here. And because of that, we’re a little surprised that this is happening. It tells us how much we don’t know about this illness.” The center has now seen more than 1,600 patients.

These patients have labeled themselves “Covid long-haulers.” As a group, they report a strange hodgepodge of symptoms, including fatigue, pain, shortness of breath, light sensitivity, exercise intolerance, insomnia, hearts that race inexplicably, diarrhea and cramping, memory problems and a debilitating “brain fog” that can at times make it hard to put a cogent sentence together.

Sharon Begley. She “was one of those rare heroic minds and hearts that, luckily for all, go into journalism,” the correspondent Howard Fineman said.
Credit…via Ned Groth

Back in the glory days of newsmagazines, the editors at Newsweek used to sit around and fantasize about their dream “doomsday” team — the clutch of journalists they would want on hand if they had to cover the end of the world. One name was always at or near the top: Sharon Begley.

Ms. Begley, a marquee journalist for Newsweek for more than 25 years and widely regarded as one of the pre-eminent science writers of her generation, was fast and trustworthy and could turn a phrase. She died at 64 on Jan. 16 at a hospital in Boston. Her husband, Edward Groth, said the cause was complications of lung cancer.

After Newsweek, Ms. Begley wrote for The Wall Street Journal, Reuters and, for the last five years, Stat, the Boston-based health and science news website, where she was one of its lead writers on Covid-19.

At Stat, she tested then-President Trump’s claim that more Covid-19 tests create more cases; she reported on flaws when checking fevers to flag infected people and recommended smell tests instead; the retractions of two Covid-19 papers from top medical journals and more.

In a 43-year career, she took home a boatload of science-writing prizes.

In the days after her death, tributes on social media came as much from the scientists she had written about as the journalists she had worked with, including a lead coronavirus expert, Dr. Francis S. Collins, the director of the National Institutes of Health.

Dr. Collins wrote on Twitter that Ms. Begley would be “long remembered for making the most complex science stories both exciting and accessible.”

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Video by City of New Orleans, courtesy of Crista RockCreditCredit…Crista Rock

With the snap of the snare drums, New Orleanians take joyous turns high-stepping and chicken strutting, dressed in the finery of their social clubs and krewes. The celebration, shown on a 30-second public service announcement, is one of numerous efforts around the country to persuade people to get inoculated against the coronavirus. But its homegrown approach, using neighborhood personas and invoking local Carnival culture, may make it particularly effective, say experts in vaccine hesitance and behavioral change.

“I’m getting the vaccine so we can have Mardi Gras, y’all!” shouts Jeremy Stevenson, a Monogram Hunter Mardi Gras Indian, also known as Second Chief Lil Pie, as he sways in a 12-foot tower of turquoise feathers and beading.

Other locals prance forth to offer their own reasons, concluding: “Sleeves Up, NOLA!”

“I teared up several times and also just laughed out loud with delight. The sense of community is contagious,” said Alison M. Buttenheim, the scientific director of the Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics at the University of Pennsylvania. “Vaccination is framed as a collective action that everyone can contribute to in order to bring back things the community values and cherishes.”

Although national vaccine hesitation rates are falling, surveys show that antipathy to the new shots is still widespread among some demographic groups. But there has been little consensus around ways to build confidence in the shot.

In November, New Orleans put together a coalition of public health doctors, clergy, leaders from Black, Latino and Vietnamese communities, and heads of the city’s large social clubs. The group identified cultural icons that would appeal widely to residents.

Rather than focusing messaging on the miseries wrought by the pandemic, it decided to emphasize an aspirational and inviting tone, a core insight derived from behavioral change research.

“I’m getting my shot so I can visit my 92-year-old mom and we can eat in our favorite restaurants,” says Julie Nalibov of the Krewe of Red Beans.

The spot will be shown on local TV stations and saturate social media. Photographs will adorn citywide billboards.

“I hope state and local health departments around the country can get resources to develop more hyperlocal campaigns,” Dr. Buttenheim said. “Imagine similar spots from Philly, or Boise, or Hawaii, or the Cherokee Nation.”

A parking lot of the State Farm Stadium in Glendale, Ariz., which has been turned into a mass vaccination site.
Credit…Juan Arredondo for The New York Times

An 8-year-old girl in Missouri is getting an earful from frustrated Arizonans who are trying to get inoculated against Covid-19 and mistakenly calling her instead.

Sophia Garcia of Sullivan, Mo., who used to live in Arizona, has been receiving dozens of calls from people in the state on her hand-me-down phone, whose Phoenix number is just one digit different from the Arizona health department’s vaccine help line.

“Every five minutes my phone keeps ringing,” she told Phoenix’s CBS affiliate, KPHO/KTVK. Callers have been complaining about scheduling difficulties and asking how to book an appointment, her family said. In response, Sophia has recorded a voice mail message directing callers to the appropriate number.

Her story offers a glimpse of the struggles and at times desperation of people seeking vaccination in Arizona and elsewhere. People across the United States have complained of their second dose appointments being canceled after vaccination sites ran out of supplies. And there are concerns that President Biden’s goal of 100 million shots in 100 days may not be ambitious enough.

Arizona, which has the worst infection rate in the country, is speeding up vaccinations after a slow start, with the Department of Health Services announcing on Sunday that more than 400,000 doses had been administered. Over 61,000 people have received both doses, the health department said. A New York Times tracker monitoring the vaccine rollout in each state places Arizona in the top 20 for doses administered.

After earlier glitches and staff shortages, the state attributes the turnaround partly to round-the-clock use of the State Farm Stadium in Glendale, a suburb of Phoenix, as a site for inoculations in the past few weeks. “The success of our State Farm Stadium vaccination site has made it clear that Arizona can efficiently and effectively administer vaccine to large numbers,” Dr. Cara Christ, director of the Arizona Department of Health Services, said in a statement.

Another vaccination site at the Phoenix Municipal Stadium is set to open next week.

State officials said the federal government had denied a request for an additional 300,000 doses each week. “Now the federal government has to step up its game and provide additional vaccine to support Arizona’s proven momentum,” Dr. Christ said.

In the meantime, Arizonans who inadvertently call Sophia in Missouri will get this firm but encouraging message: “Hopefully, if you try carefully, you could get the right number.”

Refugees walk in floodwaters after a heavy rainy season downpour at the Dadaab refugee complex, in the north-east of Kenya, on April 17, 2018.
Credit…Yasuyoshi Chiba/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The number of refugees resettled around the world last year fell to the lowest level in nearly two decades and would barely fill some college basketball arenas in the United States, according to 2020 data reported Monday by the United Nations.

It attributed the drop to reduced willingness by countries to accept them and the effects of the pandemic, which disrupted or delayed resettlement operations everywhere.

Despite 1.44 million refugees in urgent need of resettlement, only 22,770 were resettled last year through the United Nations Refugee Agency, the lowest since 2003, when 27,338 were resettled. The 2020 total was roughly a third of the number resettled in 2019.

“We can only hope that 2020 will be an extreme anomaly for refugee resettlement,” Gillian Triggs, an assistant secretary-general who is the agency’s assistant high commissioner for protection, said in announcing the numbers.

The refugee agency’s mandate covers more than 20 million refugees around the world, 85 percent of them in developing countries.

“The fact is that as long as wars and conflict continue, displacement remains protracted, and the least-resourced countries are left with the extremely disproportionate burden of hosting the majority of the world’s refugees,” Ms. Triggs said. “We need other countries to step up.”

The United States, historically the biggest and most generous host for refugees seeking resettlement, severely restricted the number of resettlements under the anti-immigrant agenda promoted during the administration of President Donald J. Trump. Last September, the administration cut maximum refugee admissions for 2021 to 15,000 — 80,000 lower than the historical average and the lowest since the creation of the U.S. refugee admissions program in 1980.

President Joseph R. Biden Jr. has said he would raise the annual figure to 125,000 as part of his plan to undo many of Mr. Trump’s actions.

The Michigan Wolverines playing against the Wisconsin Badgers in Ann Arbor, Mich., this month.
Credit…Rick Osentoski/USA Today Sports, via Reuters

The University of Michigan said Saturday that it had suspended all sports activities for up to two weeks and told athletes, coaches and team staff members to quarantine immediately after “several” cases of a more transmissible variant of the coronavirus were found among people linked to the athletic department.

The department said the suspension had been mandated by the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services in an effort to prevent further spread of the variant, first identified in Britain and known as B.1.1.7, which is estimated to be about 50 percent more transmissible than other variants.

“Canceling competitions is never something we want to do,” Warde Manuel, the University of Michigan athletic director, said in a statement, “but with so many unknowns about this variant of Covid-19, we must do everything we can to minimize the spread among student-athletes, coaches, staff, and to the student-athletes at other schools.”

Michigan, a member of the Big Ten Conference, has one of the most prominent athletic programs in the country. Its men’s basketball team is currently ranked seventh nationally, and the women’s team is ranked 11th. A two-week suspension would require both teams to reschedule or cancel at least four games.

Officials in Washtenaw County, which includes the University of Michigan, said Saturday that five cases of the B.1.1.7 variant had been found in the county and that other possible cases were being investigated. They said that the first case was detected on Jan. 16 within the University of Michigan community, but that it was not clear whether the subsequent cases were related to the first one.

The university administration said five cases of the variant had been detected among people associated with the school. It added that all five people were in isolation and experiencing mild or no symptoms, and that all of their close contacts had been identified, tested and placed in quarantine.

The coronavirus has disrupted college sports programs across the country, with thousands of infections among athletes, coaches and staff members. A New York Times analysis last month found that the Big Ten Conference had reported the most cases of any top league, including more than 200 at Michigan.

The first U.S. case of the B.1.1.7 variant was found in Colorado last month, and it has now been detected in at least 22 states. Federal health officials have warned that it may become the country’s dominant source of coronavirus infection by March.

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